Radioisotope dating fossils
Radioisotope dating fossils - dating simulations online
Wöhler took a sample of ammonium cyanate (NH ), a waste product in the urine of mammals.
Lead, of course, is poisonous, and is not used today in pencils or in most applications that would involve prolonged exposure of humans to the element.
In fact, what Wöhler had glimpsed—and what other scientists who followed came to understand, was this: what separates the organic from the inorganic is the manner in which the carbon chains are arranged.
Ammonium cyanate and urea have exactly the same numbers and proportions of atoms, yet they are different compounds.
Thus, to reduce the specifics of organic chemistry even further, it can be said that this area of the field constitutes the study of carbon chains, and ways to rearrange them in order to create new substances.
Rubber, vitamins, cloth, and paper are all organically based compounds we encounter in our daily lives.
In fact, an entire branch of chemistry is devoted to answering these theoretical questions, as well as to determining solutions to a host of other, more practical problems.
Organic chemistry is the study of carbon, its compounds, and their properties.
In each case, the material comes from something that once was living, but what truly makes these substance organic in nature is the common denominator of carbon, as well as the specific arrangements of the atoms.
We have organic chemistry to thank for any number of things: aspirins and all manner of other drugs; preservatives that keep food from spoiling; perfumes and toiletries; dyes and flavorings, and so on.
They are thus isomers: substances which have the same formula, but are different chemically.
In urea, the carbon forms an organic chain, and in ammonium cyanate, it does not.
According to the Moh scale, which measures the hardness of minerals, diamond is a 10—in other words, the hardest type of material.