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In response, they issued the Declaration of Pillnitz, which insisted that the French return Louis XVI to the throne.
Outside of France, some neighboring countries feared that France’s revolutionary spirit would spread beyond French land.
Within days of the announcement, many members of the other two estates had switched allegiances over to this revolutionary new assembly.
Shortly after the National Assembly formed, its members took the Tennis Court Oath, swearing that they would not relent in their efforts until a new constitution had been agreed upon.
The era following the ousting of Robespierre was known as the Thermidorian Reaction, and a period of governmental restructuring began, leading to the new Constitution of 1795 and a significantly more conservative National Convention.
To control executive responsibilities and appointments, a group known as the Directory was formed.
The National Assembly’s revolutionary spirit galvanized France, manifesting in a number of different ways.
In Paris, citizens stormed the city’s largest prison, the Bastille, in pursuit of arms.
Finally, the king realized that this taxation problem really did need to be addressed, so he appointed a new controller general of finance, Charles de Calonne, in 1783.
Calonne suggested that, among other things, France begin taxing the previously exempt nobility.
Though it had no legislative abilities, the Directory’s abuse of power soon came to rival that of any of the tyrannous revolutionaries France had faced.
Meanwhile, the Committee of Public Safety’s war effort was realizing unimaginable success.
In the countryside, peasants and farmers revolted against their feudal contracts by attacking the manors and estates of their landlords.